Introduction to the Sonar Equations

Course #PH3401

Est.imated Completion Time: 3 months


A discussion of the fundamental principles behind each term of the sonar equations. Starting with the acoustic wave equation and the basic properties of sound waves, topics include ray acoustics, normal mode theory, simple transmission loss models, coherent and incoherent sound, directivity, beamforming, scattering, noise sources and properties, and the detection threshold. This course can be taken online as part of the ASW Certificate program.

Included in degrees & certificates

  • 274


  • Single-variable calculus
Offerings database access
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Application Deadlines

  •  08 Jan 2024

    Spring Quarter applications due

  •  01 Apr 2024

    Summer Quarter applications due

  •  08 Jul 2024

    Fall Quarter applications due

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Academic Calendar

  •  12 Dec 2023 – 14 Dec 2023

    Fall Quarter final examinations

  •  15 Dec 2023

    Fall Quarter graduation

  •  18 Dec 2023 – 05 Jan 2024

    Winter break

See NPS Academic Calendar for more dates.